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[[ Read Pdf ]] ⚛ Industry and Empire: The Birth of the Industrial Revolution õ The Industrial Revolution marks the most fundamental transformation of human life in the history of the world It occurred, inevitably and temporarily, in the form of a capitalist economy and society, and it was also, perhaps, inevitable that it should occur in the form of a single liberal world economy, depending for a time on a single leading pioneer country That country was Britain , and as such it stands alone in history In his book E J Hobsbawm described and accounts for Britain s rise as the world s first industrial power, its decline from its temporary dominance, its rather special relationship with the rest of the world, and some of the effects of all of these on the life of the people of the countryThe advantages of making an industrial revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were considerable, but between the s and the end of the nineteenth the disadvantages began to emerge Britain s decline can be traced to the early and long sustained start as an industrial power, which, among other things, embedded an archaic technology and business structure which became difficult to abandon, or even modify Also, Britain became the primary agency of economic interchange between the advanced and backward nations, and this dependence of the underdeveloped world on Britain left her with a line of retreat into Empire and Free Trade Between the wars, the single liberal world economy, theoretically self regulating, collapsed, and the accompanying world political system also began to collapse after the Russian revolution ofBritain has adjusted to these major changes, but the big question still remains can Britain fully adapt to the changed economic world of the second half of the twentieth century and maintain a position as a major economy And if not, what are the alternatives Industry and Empire is the provocative and stimulating companion volume to Christopher Hill s Reformation to Industrial Revolution Good brief overview of the development of British capital. This is one book on my abandoned shelf that I will pick up again when I have the time Hobsbawm, a British Marxist historian, views the British industrial revolution as unique, if only because there were no competing industrialized economies He argues though that in retrospect the British economy had some advantages for industrialization, such as a cash economy in England if not in all parts of Wales or Scotland, it would still not be obvious to a visitor in 1740 that a qualitative change in This is one book on my abandoned shelf that I will pick up again when I have the time Hobsbawm, a British Marxist historian, views the British industrial revolution as unique, if only because there were no competing industrialized economies He argues though that in retrospect the British economy had some advantages for industrialization, such as a cash economy in England if not in all parts of Wales or Scotland, it would still not be obvious to a visitor in 1740 that a qualitative change in how people made a living He argues that the British empire was both the crucial market for the early textile industrialists and that this vast market was the instigation for industrialization British manufactuers had a near monopoly on sales to countries outside of Europe, due to its large empire and its naval superiority In general, its in the discussion of the role of empire that Hobsbawm s Marxism comes out I got to page 117 I read this book hoping that it might serve as an anchor for a class on technological change I cannot in good conscience advise this book for anyone Hobsbawn offers an account of an industrial revolution that is almost absent of technology, or of change Rather he describes Britain s preeminance as a result of its martime power, leveraging historical dominance in textiles to absolutely superiority in all manners of shipping and goods Britain undoubtedly won the first industrial revolution of I read this book hoping that it might serve as an anchor for a class on technological change I cannot in good conscience advise this book for anyone Hobsbawn offers an account of an industrial revolution that is almost absent of technology, or of change Rather he describes Britain s preeminance as a result of its martime power, leveraging historical dominance in textiles to absolutely superiority in all manners of shipping and goods Britain undoubtedly won the first industrial revolution of water powered spinning jennies and automated looms, but fared less well in the second industrial revolution of steam engines and railroads, losing in relatives terms to America and Germany For a supposed Marxist, Hobsawm seems fuzzy on the generational shift from rural agricultural laborers to an urban and industrial proletariat, or the relationship between scientific knowledge and technological progress Decent charts, and a mass of words that signify little and explain less.Maybe I just don t like economists Hobsbawm at, if not his rhetorical best, then at least his most convincing This book tracks not only the birth of the industrial revolution, but also the postnatal effects the revolution had on British economics and society over the next two hundred years Hobsbawm argues that an aggresive governmental policy of war for profit that allowed the British to capture large markets and resources in the tropics was the kickstarter for the industrial revolution However, over time the British then ref Hobsbawm at, if not his rhetorical best, then at least his most convincing This book tracks not only the birth of the industrial revolution, but also the postnatal effects the revolution had on British economics and society over the next two hundred years Hobsbawm argues that an aggresive governmental policy of war for profit that allowed the British to capture large markets and resources in the tropics was the kickstarter for the industrial revolution However, over time the British then refused to adapt their business industrial models, as it was always easier to exploit the empire than it was to compete with new industrial powers After the great depression and two world wars, the British system collapsed entirely and she adopted a planning economy until 1979 The Conservative Party in that year went against their principles to radically change as opposed to conserving British society Hobsbawm thus has little truck with British notions of conservatism, seeing them as shorthand for vested interests Writing in 1999, Hobsbawm was optimistic that the election of Blair two years previous signaled a change in British society, a move away from neoliberalism As we now know, this was not the case, and the recent unrest in the country over the decision to leave the European Union means that the comfortable future that Hobsbawm predicted for my people may not, after all, come to pass Quotes 1 Britain always had a line of retreat open when the challenge of other economies became too pressing We could retreat further into both Empire and Free Trade into our monopoly of as yet undeveloped regions, which in itself helped to keep them unindustrialized, and into our functions as the hub of the world s trading, shipping and financial transactions We did not have to compete but could evade And our ability to evade helped to perpetuate the archaic and increasingly obsolete industrial and social structure of the pioneer age xii 2 I do not wish to deny the autonomous power of accumulated and fossilized institutions and habits to act as a brake upon change Up to a point they have this power, though it is counteracted, at least potentially, by that other ingrained British tradition , which is never to resist irresistible changes, but to absorb them as quickly and quietly as possible xvii 3 The grandees of Britain were not a nobility comparable to the feudal and absolutist hierarchies of the continent They were a post revolutionary elite, the heirs of the Roundheads 10 4 The Industrial Revolution is not merely an acceleration of economic growth, but an acceleration of growth because of, and through, economic and social transformation 12 5 Conquering markets by war and colonization required not merely an economy capable of exploiting those markets, but also a government willing to wage war and colonize for the benefit of British manufacturers Here the advantage of Britain over her potential competitors is quite evident Unlike some of them such as France she was prepared to subordinate all foreign policy to economic ends Unlike all its other rivals, British policy in the eighteenth century was one of systematic aggressiveness most obviously against the chief rival, France Of the five great wars in the period, Britain was clearly on the defensive in only one 27