`Download Epub Û The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation õ eBook or Kindle ePUB free

`Download Epub Á The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation õ This is the story of how America awakened to its race problem, of how a nation that longed for unity after World War II came instead to see, hear, and learn about the shocking indignities and injustices of racial segregation in the South and the brutality used to enforce it It is the story of how the nation s press, after decades of ignoring the problem, came to recognize the importance of the civil rights struggle and turn it into the most significant domestic news event of the twentieth centuryDrawing on private correspondence, notes from secret meetings, unpublished articles, and interviews, veteran journalists Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff go behind the headlines and datelines to show how a dedicated cadre of newsmen first black reporters, then liberal southern editors, then reporters and photographers from the national press and the broadcast media revealed to a nation its most shameful shortcomings and propelled its citizens to act We watch the black press move bravely into the front row of the confrontation, only to be attacked and kept away from the action Following the Supreme Court sdecision striking down school segregation and the South s mobilization against it, we see a growing number of white reporters venture South to cover the Emmett Till murder trial, the Montgomery bus boycott, and the integration of the University of Alabama We witness some southern editors joining the call for massive resistance and working with segregationist organizations to thwart compliance But we also see a handful of other southern editors write forcefully and daringly for obedience to federal mandates, signaling to the nation that moderate forces were prepared to push the region into the mainstreamThe pace quickens in Little Rock, where reporters test the boundaries of journalistic integrity, then gain momentum as they cover shuttered schools in Virginia, sit ins in North Carolina, mob led riots in Mississippi, Freedom Ride buses being set afire, fire hoses and dogs in Birmingham, and long, tense marches through the rural South For many journalists, the conditions they found, the fear they felt, and the violence they saw were transforming Their growing disgust matched the mounting countrywide outrage as The New York Times, Newsweek, NBC News, and other major news organizations, many of them headed by southerners, turned a regional story into a national dramaMeticulously researched and vividly rendered, The Race Beat is an unprecedented account of one of the most volatile periods in our nation s history, as told by those who covered it This Pulitzer Prize winning book examines the role that the media had on the modern Civil Rights movement In the late 40s and into the 50s, little coverage in newsprint was given to the issues of African Americans in the southern United States The stories of beatings, lynchings, and mistreatment were detailed in segregationist newspapers printed for and sold to southern Black Americans As key figures like Martin Luther King, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X began to gain nati This Pulitzer Prize winning book examines the role that the media had on the modern Civil Rights movement In the late 40s and into the 50s, little coverage in newsprint was given to the issues of African Americans in the southern United States The stories of beatings, lynchings, and mistreatment were detailed in segregationist newspapers printed for and sold to southern Black Americans As key figures like Martin Luther King, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X began to gain national attention, media sources picked up the stories In print and eventually in television and radio, the Civil Rights movement garnered headline news and breaking stories The role of the media during this time should not be overlooked Indeed, the media brought these issues to the forefront of the nation s mind and helped in the fight to bring about much needed legistlation, such as the Voting Rights Act Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff recount the events of the civil rights struggle from Brown V BOE to Selma and beyond through the eyes of the journalists, photographers, and newscasters, both black and white These were the people working what came to be known as the Race Beat Many put themselves in harm s way to get the stories that needed to be told to the nation and it is these stories that helped give a voice to civil rights issues in America If it hadn t been for the media the print media and television the civil rights movement would have been like a bird without wings, a choir without a song John Lewis Over the course of the last year, my reading has taken a bent toward civil rights Part of this was intentional as I chose to honor the 100th anniversary of Jackie Robinson s birth My other reason for updating myself on civil rights is because I realized that history books merely gloss over the subject We hear and read about names and dates, primarily Dr King and the 1963 March on Washington and the 1964 65 civil rights acts that followed Other names such as Jackie Robinson, Rosa Parks, and t Over the course of the last year, my reading has taken a bent toward civil rights Part of this was intentional as I chose to honor the 100th anniversary of Jackie Robinson s birth My other reason for updating myself on civil rights is because I realized that history books merely gloss over the subject We hear and read about names and dates, primarily Dr King and the 1963 March on Washington and the 1964 65 civil rights acts that followed Other names such as Jackie Robinson, Rosa Parks, and the Selma to Montgomery march receive only obligatory few sentences in history books Between 1947 and 1964, the nation was awakened to civil rights, and the role of the media newspaper, radio, and later television played a large part in informing American citizens of the plight of African Americans Gene Roberts, a veteran reporter who covered civil rights, and Hank Klibanoff, a native of Alabama, undertook a project to define the role of the press corps in what they refer to as awakening the nation to civil rights The result is The Race Beat, the 2007 Pulitzer winner for history and my choice as top book read in February 2020 In the 1940s, Swedish sociologist Gunnar Myrdal toured the southern United States and gathered information in what would become his ground breaking book An American Dilemma He saw firsthand how Jim Crow laws ruled the South, and that African Americans were enslaved in all but name After seeing how the Nazis had taken over his native Sweden and controlled the press in his country, Myrdal warned Americans that if the press would just report on the plight of African Americans, that the nation would wake up and realize the atrocities facing their fellow citizens What Myrdal, as Roberts and Klibanoff formulate, failed to realize, however, were divisions in the southern press that reported the news to the rest of the country Any respected white southerner, no matter how liberal his view was, could not come across as pro African American or he would be branded a liberal and a traitor There was a fine line in reporting on Jim Crow and relating to the public the extent of its hold on the south With white supremacy and segregation being the law of the south, many white northerners believed that this was just the realities of life They did not hear about the lynchings, the horrid conditions of African American schools, homes, and lack of jobs to pull them out of poverty This was to be the role of the liberal press corps that slowly changed their slant on segregation in the generation following World War II When Jackie Robinson integrated baseball in 1947, Pittsburgh Courier reporter Wendell Smith had been assigned to follow him The Negro papers such as the Courier, Chicago Defender, and Atlanta World had readership in the high hundred thousands and notified Negroes of events important to them in all facets of society Top reporters and photographers as Moses Newsom and Ernest Withers were lauded by the black press for the delivering the news like it was The Jim Crow south was reluctant to change, yet a new generation of editorialists and reporters emerged, with the 1957 Little Rock Central High School integration being their watershed moment Little Rock Gazette publisher Harry Ash took a liberal slant of the news His mentor had been Ralph McGill of the Atlanta Journal Constitution who along with Hodding Carter, Jr of the Greenville Press, would report the news unbiasedly All reporters assigned to cover the Little Rock ground breaking story first came to Ash s office where they would receive the lay of the land firsthand, foremost being Claude Sitton, the southern bureau chief for the New York Times Sitton would emerge on the other side of the civil rights era as a top publisher for the Times, yet in 1957, Sitton along with Newsweek s Karl Fleming represented white reporters who would tell stories as they were, not necessarily on the side of southern white holdouts to Jim Crow These reporters called these articles race stories The newsmen dispatched to cover race stories called themselves race reporters They called their assignment the race beat Following Little Rock as the civil rights movement picked up steam and life in the south becameviolent, southern holdout newspapers would cling to their way of life and threaten the court system that northern reporters did not present an unbiased view of the news These holdouts led by Tom Waring in South Carolina, the Hederman family in Jackson, Mississippi, and the majority of the press in Alabama did not want northerners exposing their way of life to America They believed whites to be superior to negros and even sued the New York Times for libel for publishing stories that denounced a Jim Crow society Sitton, well regarded as a top race reporter, was not allowed to enter the state of Alabama for three years as the Times case made its way to the Supreme Court Meanwhile, television began to replace newspapers as the top medium for relating the news of the day to the American public on a daily basis Reporters faced war like environments in exchange for maybe one to three minutes of air time Yet, it was the warlike atmosphere in Alabama and Mississippi as African Americans attempted to integrate their society peacefully that woke up the north to what was going on in the Deep South These events would be reported on television and the nation began to notice the plight of African Americans, just as Gunnar Myrdal had foreseen Gene Roberts was a young reporter for the New York Times during the Freedom Rides and Selma to Montgomery marches during the 1960s He saw firsthand how African Americans ascribed to the nonviolence preached by Dr King and peacefully demonstrated at sit ins and through marches The most telling passages of this book include a Pulitzer winning editorial by Atlanta writer Gene Patterson following the murder of the four girls at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Patterson formulated that the south murdered these girls, and Caucasian America woke up to the fact that their African American brethren would demonstrate peacefully whereas whites in ducktail haircuts would throw bombs and use tear gas to gain an upper hand Segregationists like Bull Conner and the Ku Klux Klan were denounced by the press rather than lauded and only holdouts like the Hedermans continued to believe in white supremacy During the Selma to Montgomery March, seen on television across the nation, Americans of all colors would come to the aid of southern negros plight Roberts believes, at least in my opinion, that Selma woke up the nation to the atrocities of Jim Crow and lead to the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1965 Voting Rights Act Following Selma, Roberts and Klibanoff sum up their findings with what happened next Stokeley Carmichael took over the movement following the assassination of Dr King, and his proclaiming black power was broadcast over the air waves A new wave of protests across the north lead to violence and riots in northern cities, and many liberal reporters who had access to civil rights events in the south, were viewed as outsiders in riots in the north The slant of coverage changed toward that of the African American of the urban ghetto rather than a unified movement peacefully demanding basic rights as American citizens The Vietnam War disrupted civil rights coverage as atrocities abroad were broadcast on the nightly news Civil rights has never gone away Reading stories from conservative, liberal, and neutral stances today shows that the rights of various ethnic groups in the United States remains on the forefront of society The issue will become evenprevalent as the population becomes a plurality rather than a Caucasian majority in the next decade How the news reports civil rights events across all media platforms will remain a hot button issue for as long as society exists As one who learned to read by reading the sports section of the newspaper, I found this account of the press covering the news to be fascinating News reporters are often sent to war zones such as the American south of the 1960s in order to relay the news to the rest of the public Theodore Roosevelt coined the term bully pulpit to describe his relationship with newsmen, and he had the press in his corner throughout his presidency The civil rights movement was no different as reporters from liberal and conservative slants brought the Jim Crow reality of life in the south to the forefront of the psyche of the American public News editors Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff spent years researching the race beat and its role in the civil rights movement and were deservingly award a Pulitzer Prize for their efforts The Race Beat is the first Pulitzer winner I have read in 2020 and a worthy edition to my African American history month lineup This book was enlightening and easily my top choice as I tackled tough issues over the course of the month I highly recommend this to all 5 starsTop 5 books of 2020 If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one there to hear it does it still make a sound The age old philosophical question to verify the existence of an event resonates loudly through the theme of this book If not for the reporters, editors, and photographers, would the realities of the civil rights movement have entered the consciousness of anyone outside the south It arguably would have taken a different path Enlightening in depth analysis of how newspaper, and later, television jo If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one there to hear it does it still make a sound The age old philosophical question to verify the existence of an event resonates loudly through the theme of this book If not for the reporters, editors, and photographers, would the realities of the civil rights movement have entered the consciousness of anyone outside the south It arguably would have taken a different path Enlightening in depth analysis of how newspaper, and later, television journalism narrated the story of the critical events of the civil rights movement starting with post WWII life through the Watts riots The bulk of this book focused on the battle over desegregation in public education in the 1950 s through the march on Selma for voting rights in the 1960 s Direct and detailed account although at times the players were hard to follow and the narration wandered at times Still, a lot to digest here and an important and well done body of work The details are not for the faint of heart and the racial hate rhetoric espoused by the rabid segregationists is alarmingly similar to the dog whistle verbiage embraced by the modern day hard right Have we not learned anything or evolved from the past The final quote of the book sums it up well If it hadn t been for the media the print media and television the civil rights movement would have been like a bird without wings, a choir without a song The book is amazing many viewpoints are explored, as well as key events, the roles of the president, Supreme Court, the states, governors, law enforcement, marshals, FBI, preachers, editors, reporters, photographers, students, Martin Luther King, the Ku Klux Klan it s all here The nonvio The final quote of the book sums it up well If it hadn t been for the media the print media and television the civil rights movement would have been like a bird without wings, a choir without a song The book is amazing many viewpoints are explored, as well as key events, the roles of the president, Supreme Court, the states, governors, law enforcement, marshals, FBI, preachers, editors, reporters, photographers, students, Martin Luther King, the Ku Klux Klan it s all here The nonviolence King preached and how he worked hard to get the press to cover rallies, sit ins, the Freedom bus ride, black students integrating into schools and colleges, and any other event where nonviolent black protesters were met with violent law enforcement who used dogs, fire hoses, tear gas and clubs to beat anyone who got in their way I was stunned at the number of murders not just white racists, but also police sheriffs and deputies got away with even in court, even after white witnesses testified to the murderer s guilt I also didn t realize the extent of the danger to the reporters and photographers covering all of these events, as well Many of them were brutally beaten and their cameras and film destroyed An in depth, eye opening and deeply moving book